Basic computer knowledge by Online Computer Training
A computer is an electronic device that controls an indicator stored in its own memory that can receive data (input), process data according to specific rules, generate data (output), and store data for future use. Basic computer knowledge see below-
The effectiveness of a calculation:
Any digital Computer Performs five functions in rough terms:
- Takes data as input.
- Stores data/instructions in its memory and uses them as needed.
- Processes data and converts it into useful information
- Generates output
- Controls the above four steps
Components of Computer:
Any computer has hardware and software.
Computer hardware is a collection of physical components that make up a computer system. Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer such as monitors, mice, keyboards, computer data storage, hard drive disks (HDD), system units (graphics cards, sound cards, memory, motherboards, and chips), all of which can be touched. Physical objects Input device.
An input device is a peripheral (a piece of computer hardware equipment such as a computer or other information material to provide data and control signals to a computer processing system).
Input devices translate data from a form that allows people to understand that the computer can work. The most common are keyboards and mice/muse.
Example of Input Devices:-
|1. Keyboard||2. Mouse (pointing device)||3. Microphone|
|4. Scanner||5. Cameras/ Digital camera||6. Webcam|
|7. Graphics Tablets||8. Touch screen||9. Gamepad|
Note: The most used keyboard is the QWERTY keyboard. The standard keyboard usually contains 104 keys.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
A CPU is the brain of a computer. It is responsible for all functions and processes. Regarding computing power, the CPU is the most important component of a computer system.
The CPU has three main components:
* Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): Performs all mathematical and logical activities. Arithmetic calculations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Comparison of logical operations such as numbers, letters or special characters
Control Unit (CU): Controls and integrates computer components.
1. Read the code to execute the next instruction.
2. Extend the program counter so that it points to the next command.
3. Read the information needed for instructions from the memory cell.
4. Provide necessary information to ALU or Register.
5. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation. * Articles: “Very fast storage area”, saves data on the next execution.
Early Memories: –
1. RAM (Random Access Memory):
RAM is a memory scheme responsible for storing data in a computer system on a temporary basis, so that it can be accessed instantly through the processor and when needed. It is unstable in nature, which means data will be deleted after the supply to the storage device is turned off. RAM stores data randomly and the processor accesses it randomly from RAM storage. RAM is considered ‘Random access’ because if you know the rows and columns intersected in that cell, you can access any memory cell directly.
2. ROM (read memory only): Permanent form of ROM storage. The ROM is active whether the power supply is on or off. ROM devices do not allow modification of the data contained in them.
Stores data and programs permanently: it is retained after the power is turned off
1. Hard Drive (HD): A hard disk is part of a unit often referred to as a “disk drive,” “hard drive,” or “hard disk drive” and provides relatively fast access to large amounts of data in that store provides an electromagnetically charged surface Or set of surfaces.
2. Optical Disk: An optical disk drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light as part of the process of reading or writing data on or off optical discs. Some drives can only read from discs but recent drives are usually both readers and recorders also called burners or writers. Compact discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media that can be read and recorded on such drives. Optical drive generic name; Drives are usually described as “CD”, “DVD” or “Blu-ray”, followed by “Drive”, “Author” and so on.
There are three main types of optical media: CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Disc. CDs can store up to 700 MB (MB) of data and DVDs can store up to 8.4 GB of data. Blu-ray discs, the latest optical media, can store up to 50 GB of data. This storage capacity is an obvious advantage over floppy disk storage media (a magnetic media), which has a capacity of only 1.44 MB.
3. Flash disk: A storage module made with a flash memory chip. Flash disks do not have a mechanical platter or access weapon, but the term “disk” is used because the data is accessed as if they were on a hard drive. The disk storage structure is simulated.
Output devices/ Outcome instrument
An output device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of the data processing done through a data processing system (such as a computer) that converts electronically generated data into human-readable form.
Example on Output Devices:
|3.||Printers (all types)||4. Computer Output Microfilm (COM)|
Types of monitor:
1. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
2. light-emitting diode (LED).
3. Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
Types of Printer:
1. Laser Printer.
2. Ink Jet Printer.
3. Dot Matrix Printer